Citing your Sources in MLA Style

Citing your Sources in MLA Style

Your bibliography should really be alphabetized by writer name that is last. For works that do not need a writer, alphabetize by product name (omitting articles like «a» or «the»). Your bibliography also needs to be formatted making use of indents that are hanging.

Book or Report

The Bible. Authorized King James Variation, Oxford UP, 1998.

Dorris, Michael, and Louise Erdrich. The Crown of Columbus. HarperCollins Publishers, 1999.

Fagih, Ahmed Ibrahim al-. The Singing of the Movie Stars. Translated by Leila El Khalidi and Christopher Tingley. Brief Arabic Plays: An Anthology, modified by Salma Khadra Jayyusi, Interlink Books, 2003, pp. 140-57.

Johnson, Roberta. Gender and Nation in the Spanish Modernist Novel. Vanderbilt UP, 2003.

Chapter in A guide

Copeland, Edward. “Money.” The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen, Edited by Copeland and Juliet McMaster, Cambridge UP, 1997, pp. 131-48.

Poe, Edgar Allan. «The Masque of this Red Death.» The whole Works of Edgar Allan Poe, edited by James A. Harrison, vol. 4, Thomas Y. Crowell, 1902, pp. 250-58. HathiTrust Digital Library, >

Journal Article

Piper, Andrew. “Rethinking the Print Object: Goethe as well as the Book of Everything.” PMLA, vol. 121, number 1, Jan. 2006, pp. 124-38. JSTOR,

Newspaper Articles

Dwyer, Jim. “Yeats suits the Digital Age, saturated in Passionate Intensity.” Ny instances, early ed., Arts and Leisure sec., 20 July 2008, pp. 1+.

Book Reviews

Mackin, wix website samples Joseph. Summary of The Pleasures of Reading in a day and time of Distraction, by Alan Jacomb. Nyc Journal of Books, 2 2011, 222 june.

Magazine Articles

Weintraub, Arlene, and Laura Cohen. “A Thousand-Year Plan for Nuclear Spend.” Company Week, 6 might 2002, pp. 94-96.

Note that in this example, the optional initial date of book is included, as well as a few individuals in one Other Contributors category. That person might be placed in the writer position, like so: «Capra, Frank, director. if you were learning somebody linked to the work»

It’s a life that is wonderful. 1946. Directed by Frank Capra, Efficiency by James Stewart et al., Republic, 2001.

Television Episodes

Whether you choose to put the episode director to the writer place or perhaps maybe not is dependent upon the show along with your utilization of the show in your writing. The director for each episode may take on authorial importance, otherwise the creator or director of the series as a whole may be placed in the author position if the show features episodes with distinct story lines or dramatic styles. If no body takes authorial value for your work, destination the title associated with episode into the position that is first.

Bernstein, Adam director. «Hazard Pay.» Breaking Bad, season 5, episode 3, High Bridge Productions et al., 29 Jul 2012.

«Hush.» Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Geller, period 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999.

Federal federal Government papers ( start to see the style manual at web page 104)

Cite them like publications, book chapters, website pages, etc, based on whether or not the product you might be citing is just a thing that is singlebook/report), a percentage of a bigger thing (guide chapter), or web-based thing (website pages). Sometimes you will see people that are specific as writers, but whenever this is simply not the instance, utilize the title associated with the organization or agency accountable for publication.

Start the entry utilizing the title for the federal federal government, followed closely by way of a comma as well as the title associated with agency. By the end regarding the entry for the publication that is congressional you could optionally are the quantity and session of Congress, and they type and number for the book. (The MLA Handbook particularly recommends after the Chicago handbook of Style if you utilize numerous federal federal government publications and require specific citation guidance.)

The uk, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food. Our Countryside, the Future: A Fair Contract for Rural England. Her Majesty’s Stationery Workplace, 2000.

United Nations. Effects of Rapid Population Development in Developing Nations. Taylor and Francis, 1991.

Usa, Congress, Home, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Al-Qaeda: The Countless Faces of a Islamist Extremist Threat. Government Printing Workplace, 2006. 109th Congress, second session, home Report 615.

Private Interviews

Record the person (last name first), followed by «Personal Interview» after which the date associated with the meeting

Smith, Jane. Individual meeting. 19 May 2014.

Interview or Audio Commentary on a DVD

Note that in the first instance the title is in quote markings because that’s the title the author offered it. Within the second and 3rd examples the interview had no offered title, so we present a short description without quote marks instead.

Blanchett, Cate. «In Character with: Cate Blanchett.» Records for a Scandal, Directed by Richard Eyre, Fox Searchlight, 2006.

Olivier, Laurence. Interview by Kenneth Tynan. Richard III, Directed by Laurence Olivier, 2004, The Criterion Collection,

Verbinski, Gore and Johnny Depp. Sound Commentary. Pirates for the Caribbean: The Curse associated with the Ebony Pearl, Buena Vista home theatre, 2004.

Real Time Performances

Aristophanes. Directed by Barbara Karger and Michael Preston, 20 April 2006, Goodwin Theater, Austin Arts Center, Hartford.

Image or Artwork

It first hand, the Location is the physical location of the work if you view. In the event that you view a reproduction, proceed with the standard guidelines for Containers.

If the image doesn’t have title, offer a brief description regarding the product within the title location. Don’t add quote markings or italicize this description.

DaVinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. 1503?, Louvre Museum, Paris.

DaVinci, Leonado. Mona Lisa. 1503?, Wikipedia,,_by_Leonardo_da_Vinci,_from_C2RMF_retouched.jpg.

Image of pet. 2016,

Work in a set

Clowes, Daniel. David Boring. Eightball, no. 19, Fantagraphics, 1998.

Twitter, Twitter, YouTube, etc

Each entry that is bibliographic MLA style was created on the same maxims, with hardly any variation from book kind to book kind.

Each cited work has typical elements listed within the order that is following the punctuation noted on this chart. Functions are posted as solitary devices, but most take place in «Containers» (like an essay or poem in a written guide, or a bout of a tv program, or articles in a magazine). If information regarding a feature isn’t available, miss out the element and proceed to the next.

Here are a few examples that are useful

Using the Fundamental Elements

Writers are recognized extremely broadly. You add a descriptive label like so: Pitt, Brad, performer if you are concentrating on the work of a particular actor in a movie, that actor is the Author, and. The first author followed by «et al. if you have 3 or more authors, list»

Titles of sources are italicized if the supply is really a thing that is complete it self (a guide, play, or film). Titles are enclosed in quotation markings in the event that supply is element of a bigger posted thing (a poem in a group, an episode of a television show, articles in a log). As a result, the name of the container is almost constantly italicized. If you have no name, put in a description that is brief of work but never make use of italics or quote marks.

Other Contributors may be noted if they truly are crucial that you your projects. Precede each true name or number of names with a description such as for example «adapted by» or «edited by.» In the event that man or woman’s part must take noun kind, achieve this followed with a comma like in «general editor, Edwin H. Cady.» In the event that factor ended up being crucial that you the origin however the container, place this contributor information between the Title associated with the supply as well as the Title regarding the Container.

Variations are now and again essential, such as for example «8th ed» for this variation associated with the MLA Handbook.

Numbers refer to volume and issue figures on publications and periodicals. Use «vol.» and «no.» for «volume» and «number.»

Publisher describes the business that made the source/container open to people. Host to book is not any longer detailed as of the 8th edition, except in unique circumstances (see web page 51). Numerous publishers which are similarly responsible are typical detailed, divided with a forward slash. «University Press» is abbreviated to «UP.» Publishers are maybe perhaps not listed for the following types of sources:

  • periodicals (journals, publications, magazines)
  • Works published by their writers or editors
  • Websites which have actually games really the just like their writers’ names
  • Internet sites maybe not tangled up in producing the works it generates available ( such as for example a service like, or an archive like JSTOR). In the event that articles for the site are arranged as a whole that is unifiedmuch like YouTube or JSTOR), your website is listed earlier in the day as a Container name.